Jet fuel is an aviation hydrocarbon fuel for aircraft with heat engine.
They produce jet fuel for subsonic aircraft compliant with GOST 10227-86 and for supersonic aircraft compliant with GOST 12308-89. Five fuel grades (TS-1, T-1, T-1S and T-2 and RT) are provided for subsonic aircraft, two for supersonic - (T-6 and T-8V). The mainstream fuels currently in use are the TS-1 (higher and first grade) and RT (premium grade).
It is produced by way of direct distillation of sour oil (target fraction - 150-250°C). In case of high content of sulfur and mercaptans, hydrotreating or sweetening is carried out, then it is used in admixture with the front-end fraction. The content of the hydrotreated component is limited in concentration to 70% to prevent reduction in antiwear properties of the fuel. It is the most common grade of jet fuel for subsonic aircraft. Used in both military and civilian applications. It is also used for enrichment by flotation.
Product of direct distillation of low-sulfur oil of naphthenic base with a boiling range of 130-280C. It contains a large amount of naphthenic acids and has high acidity, therefore, it is subjected to alkalization followed by water washing (to remove naphthenic acids resulting from alkalinity of sodium soaps).
The presence of significant quantities of heteroatomic compounds, mostly oxygen-containing, results in a relatively good anti-wear properties and sufficiently acceptable chemical stability of fuel on the one hand, while on the other - lower thermooxidative stability.
Long experience with fuel T-1 use in aviation demonstrated that, due to its low thermal oxidative stability, increased resinous deposits in the NK-8 engine mounted on the main types of civil aircraft (TU-154, IL-62, IL-76) occur, resulting in dramatic (almost 2 times) reduction of engine life. Production of T-1 fuel is very limited, they only produce its first quality category.
Product of distillation of low-sulfur oil of naphthenic base with boiling range of 130-280°C. It contains large amount of naphthenic acids, because of which it has a high acidity and thus, following release of fractions from petroleum, it undergoes alkalization followed by water washing. Heteroatomic naphthenic compounds contained in the fuel provide good anti-wear properties and chemical stability, on the other hand, the fuel has a very low thermal-oxidative stability. Long-term tests have shown that using that fuel in NK-8 (TU-154 (A, B, B-1, B-2) and IL-62) engines results in increased resinous deposition, due to which engine life is reduced by two times. Currently, only first class fuel is produced in very limited quantities.
The raw material for the production may be scarce grades of oil with negligible sulfur content (North Caucasian and Azerbaijani oil).
Product of distillation of broad fractional composition of oil - 60- 280°C. It contains up to 40% of gasoline fractions, which causes high saturated vapor pressure, low viscosity and density. Increased saturated vapor pressure causes probability of formation of vapor lock in the fuel system of an aircraft, which limits the altitude of flight.
Fuel is not produced; it is redundant for the TS-1 and RT.
It is produced by hydrorefining of straight-run kerosene fractions with a boiling range 135-280°C. As a result, the hydrotreatment reduces the content of sulfur and mercaptans, but also deteriorates antiwear properties and chemical stability. To prevent that, antiwear and antioxidant additives are introduced into the fuel.
RT fuel is fully compliant with the international standards, surpassing those in certain properties. It has good antiwear properties, high chemical and thermal oxidative stability, low sulfur content and almost complete absence of mercaptans. The fuel can be stored up to 10 years and provides for a full service life of an engine.
It is produced by deep hydrogenation of straight-run fraction at 195-315°C obtained from suitable naphthenic oils. Used in supersonic aircraft, mostly in the Russian Air Force.
It represents hydrotreated fraction with boiling range of 165-280°C. In case of naphthenic low-sulfur oils, its use without hydrotreating of the straight-run fraction is permissible. Used in supersonic aircraft, mostly in the Russian Air Force.